Eratosthenes was the first person to use the word "geography" and other geographical terms that are still in use today, and his efforts to calculate the circumference of the Earth and the distance from the Earth to the Sun paved the way for our modern understanding of the cosmos. Another founding father of the discipline of geography was Strabo, a 1st Century CE Greek scholar who lived in the Amaseia in modern-day Turkey. Eratosthenes' work introduced the concepts of torrid, temperate, and frigid climate zones. Al-Idrisi would later move to Palermo, Sicily under King Roger II. ISBN: 9781420627053. Eratosthenes already knew the approximate distance between Syene and Alexandria, as measured by camel-powered trade caravans. The modern academic discipline is rooted in ancient practice, concerned with the characteristics of places, in particular their natural environments and peoples, as well as the relations between the two. Eratosthenes was a 2nd century BC Greek scholar who is credited as the founder of the discipline of geography. The first book of "Geography" contained a summary of existing geographical work and Eratosthenes' speculations about the nature of the planet Earth. Geographer George Chisholm wrote the first textbook on economic georgaphy and is credited as the father … Had he used Eratosthenes' figure instead, Columbus would have known he was not yet in Asia when he landed in the New World. Find right answer with solution and explaination of asked question. until only the prime numbers remained. Hiccatius is often called Father of Geography. Herodotus is called father of historical geography. The third contained a map of the world in which the land was divided into different countries; it is one of the earliest examples of political geography. Strabo’s best-known work was his “Geographical” publication in which he drew a relatively accurate map of the world as it was known to him. The list of star constellations made the Almagest a book of great import to astronomers in Europe and Arabia in the medieval era. Eratosthenes is believed to have been born in 276 BC in Cyrene and was the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria. He then measured the angle of the shadow in Alexandria on the solstice. Eratosthenes is generally considered as the father of Geography. This method became known as the sieve of Eratosthenes, as it works by filtering out the non-prime numbers in the same way that a sieve filters solids out of liquids. Ptolemy’s map of the world was quite accurate considering the technology of the time and showed countries as far out as China (Sinae) and Sri Lanka (Taprobane). The map was drawn in 1154 and is the first to show the whole of Eurasia and part of North Africa. A crater on the Moon was named in his honor. is done on EduRev Study Group by Personal Skills Students. Eratosthenes was born around 276 BCE in a Greek colony in Cyrene, a territory located in present-day Libya. Knowing that the Earth was a sphere, he needed only two critical measurements to calculate the circumference. Many of Ptolemy’s works inspired younger geographers and were used for many centuries after his death. One of the Ptolemy’s most famous books was the Almagest, which focused on astronomy. This was the first use of the word, which in Greek means "writing about the world." The father of modern geography was Carl Ritter who was the main founder of sub-field bio-geography and was also into the chair person of Berlin university. The “Father of Geography of Ethiopia” passed away RIP: The “Father of Geography of Ethiopia” passed awayDr. Eratosthenes' most famous contribution to science was his calculation of the circumference of the Earth, which he completed while working on the second volume of his "Geography.". Although Eratosthenes made a few mathematical errors in his calculations, the, canceled each other out and yielded an amazingly accurate answer that still causes scientists to marvel. Born: c. 276 BCE in Cyrene (present-day Libya) Died: 192 or 196 BCE in Alexandria, Egypt He was educated at the academies of Athens and in 245 BCE, after earning attention for his skills, he was invited by Pharaoh Ptolemy III to run the Great Library at Alexandria in Egypt. He is a great mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. William Morris Davis (1850–1934) – father of American geography and developer of the cycle of erosion. The father of geography is the very famous Eratosthenes who belonged to Greece and was known for his multi-talent in mathematics,his hobby of writing poetries and his love towards geography. The geographer also traveled to Cordoba where he received his education. He made several significant contributions to science, including the discovery that a year is slightly longer than 365 days, requiring an extra day—or leap day—be added to the calendar every four years to keep it consistent. Ptolemy’s name suggests that he was born as a Roman citizen but of either Hellenized Egyptian or Greek ancestry. He is most famous for his calculation of Earth's circumference and for inventing the word geography. Alexander von Humboldt's travels, experiments, and knowledge transformed western science in the nineteenth century. Though Eratosthenes' original "Geography" did not survive, modern scholars know what it contained thanks to reports by Greek and Roman historians. Dr. Yohannes Aberra. Life. Strabo’s best-known work was his “Geographical” publication in which he drew a relatively accurate map of the world as it was known to him. As one of the founding fathers of ancient geography, Ptolemy is credited with the book “Geographia.” In the book, the geographer exercised the concept of segmenting the globe using a grid of longitudes and latitudes. Economic geography is an important field in geography, but also in economics. His map of the world, though highly inaccurate, was the first of its kind, featuring a grid of parallels and meridians used to estimate distances between different locations. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, The Founding Fathers of Ancient Geography. Your child will learn about the rivers and lakes, mountains and deserts, products and resources, climate and people of each continent around the globe. However, four individuals are considered the founding fathers of ancient geography due to their contributions to the discipline; Eratosthenes, Strabo, Claudius Ptolemy, and Muhammad al-Idrisi. Eratosthenes of Cyrene (c. 276 BCE–192 or 194 BCE) was an ancient Greek mathematician, poet, and astronomer who is known as the father of geography. What is Geography? The word has been derived from two Greek words geo (earth) and graphos (description). Remarkably, Eratosthenes determined the circumference to be 25,000 miles, just 99 miles over the actual circumference at the equator (24,901 miles). One of them is considered as “the Father of Geography”, because of his important contributions in this field. His name is Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Idrisi, better known as al-Sharif al-Idrisi, the most brilliant geographer and cartographer of all times. The works of this geographer became the foundations of the study of geography. The “Father of Geography of Ethiopia” passed away. Eratosthenes was a Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and poet long before geography became a thing. This page shows answers for question: Who is the father of physical geography?. Continental Europe and the Mediterranean were well defined in Strabo’s map. Professor Mesfin Woldemariam. Who Are The Founding Fathers Of The European Union? In fact, Eratosthenes is said to have invented the word “geography” along with other geographical terms. Unlike Eratosthenes, Strabo was well-traveled and had visited Kush and Egypt, and had journeyed as far as Ethiopia and Asia Minor. Some historians point Anaximander, a 4th century BC Greek scholar as the true founder of the study of geography. However, these maps were basic regional maps and were laden with errors and exaggerations. Charles Darwin described him as "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." He calculated the circumference on his own and obtained a figure of 18,000 miles—about 7,000 miles too short. He was the first to use the word geography, employing it in a now-lost work titled Geographika. Branches of Geography? Al-Idrisi credited Claudius Ptolemy for the geographical coordinates used in his publication. Fast Facts: Eratosthenes Known For: Eratosthenes was a Greek polymath who became known as the father of geography. He lived to be about 80 to 84 years old. A few decades later, the Greek geographer Posidonius insisted that Eratosthenes' circumference was too large. Carl Ritter (1779–1859) – considered father of modern geography, occupied the first chair of geography … ", Calculating the Circumference of the Earth, Famous People Who Worked at the Ancient Library of Alexandria, Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greek Scientists, The Ptolemies: Dynastic Egypt From Alexander to Cleopatra, Claudius Ptolemy: Astronomer and Geographer from Ancient Egypt, The Prime Meridian: Establishing Global Time and Space, Euclid of Alexandria and His Contributions to Geometry, How to Determine the Geometry of a Circle, M.A., Geography, California State University - Northridge, B.A., Geography, University of California - Davis. The map is known as the “Tabula Rogeriana,” was based on navigation information from Islamic merchants and earlier Islamic maps. Besides, the geographer also published a book entitled, “Kitab nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi’khtiraq al-‘afaq,” in which he outlined geographic information about the world. The geographer died in 194 BC but left behind a collection of books, many of which were lost during the Destruction of the Alexandria Library. By Joseph Kiprop on May 14 2018 in Society. This discussion on Father of geography ? Aug 8, 2018 - Resources to go along with teaching from the book "Geography From A to Z" (http://amzn.to/2xH441o) written by Jack Knowlton. Like, Comment, Share & Subscribe our Channel اردو+हिंदी #Geography #FatherOfGeo #BranchesOfGeo RIP: The “Father of Geography of Ethiopia” passed away. By taking the angle of the shadow (7.2 degrees) and dividing it into the 360 degrees of a circle (360 divided by 7.2 yields 50), Eratosthenes could then multiply the distance between Alexandria and Syene by the result to determine the circumference of the Earth. October 1, 2020. Geography, the study of the diverse environments, places, and spaces of Earth’s surface and their interactions. His method involved taking a table of whole numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus (in present-day Turkey) in around 64 BC. William Morris Davis (February 12, 1850 – February 5, 1934) was an American geographer, geologist, geomorphologist, and meteorologist, often called the "father of American geography". The book was among the first to outline the study of geography in history. and striking off the multiples of each prime, beginning with multiples of the number two, then multiples of the number three, etc. He was really the first to view nature holistically... See full answer below. Ancient Arabic sources referred to Ptolemy as “Batlamyus” from Upper Egypt. Last July I sent the manuscript of my book on the Geography of Ethiopia, written for the first time in Amharic, to Professor Mesfin Woldemariam to review it and give me his blessings. For Exam Purposes Please do not confuse. He was also the first to use the word geography. Eratosthenes used the word Geography First. Ptolemy’s model was the forerunner of modern map-making as it also measured latitudes from the “climata,” the word he gave for the equator. But many of them also consider Hiccatius as the Father of Geography. The works of Strabo were influenced by earlier Greek scholars such as Hipparchus and Eratosthenes, with Strabo citing the two in his publications. are solved by group of students and teacher of Personal Skills, which is also the largest student community of Personal Skills. The geographer’s ancestors forcefully settled in Ceuta after the Zirids of Granada defeated Hammudid Malaga. The geographer used the length of the shadows at noon and the sun’s rays to come up with a formula that enabled him to calculate the earth’s circumference which according to him was 27,402 miles. Some historians believe that Eratosthenes was responsible for the leap day, and accurately determined the distance between the Sun and the Earth. Another founding father of the discipline of geography was Strabo, a 1st Century CE Greek scholar who lived in the Amaseia in modern-day Turkey. This measurement was used for hundreds of years and was even studied by Christopher Columbus 17 centuries after the death of Eratosthenes. According to most scholars, Eratosthenes is known as the father of Geography because he is considered to have been the first person to use the word 'Geography'. In his youth, Al-Idrisi spent most of his time traveling and was able to explore many regions in Europe including Pyrenees and Jorvik, and North Africa. So, Most scholars consider Eratosthenes as the father of Geography. The accuracy of the “Geographica” book was unchallenged for hundreds of ye… The geographer used his knowledge of the earth, which he obtained from the mapping studies done by professionals before him, to come up with a map of the world in his publication “Geographika.” The book introduced the term “geography” to the world. Greece - Just like the “Father of Mathematics,” Archimedes, and the “Father of Philosophy,” Socrates, the “Father of Geography” came from Greece. Eratosthenes was a Greek expert in many disciplines, including astronomy, geography, and mathematics. One particularly impressive feat by Eratosthenes was that he was able to determine the circumference of the earth with remarkable accuracy without even traveling from Egypt. After hearing about a deep well at Syene (near the Tropic of Cancer and modern-day Aswan) where sunlight only struck the bottom of the well on the summer solstice, Eratosthenes worked out a method by which he could calculate the circumference of the Earth using basic geometry. The ancient Greek scholar and Head Librarian of the Great Library of Alexandria, Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) is commonly regarded as the "Father of Geography" as he coined the word and, among other things, determined the circumference of the Earth. Rate and follow … Eratosthenes is known as father of systematic geography, proposed the word 'Geography' first. Father of geography Eratosthenes FatherAlexander von Humboldt (1769–1859) – considered father of modern geography, published Cosmos and founder of the sub-field biogeography. Eratosthenes is known as father of systematic geography, proposed the word 'Geography' first. Continental Europe and the Mediterranean were well defined in Strabo’s map. His family had been involved in politics since at least the reign of Mithridates V. Strabo was related to Dorylaeus on his mother's side. Through maps and activities, children gain a thorough knowledge of each continent. In addition to being a mathematician and geographer, Eratosthenes was also a very gifted philosopher, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. In his old age, Eratosthenes became blind and he died of self-induced starvation in either 192 or 196 BCE in Alexandria, Egypt. Ptolemy was a 1st century CE astronomer and geographer from the Roman Empire. A man of many firsts, Eratosthenes is also credited with the first world map in history, which was of impressive accuracy, as well as determining the tilt of the Earth’s axis. Who was/is considered the ancient father of the study of geography? The second book of "Geography" described the mathematical calculations he had used to determine the circumference of the Earth. Eratosthenes was one of the greatest Greek polymaths, and his work influenced later innovators in fields ranging from mathematics to geography. Yohannes AberraOctober 1, 2020 Last July I sent the manuscript of my book on the Geography of Ethiopia, written for the first time in Amharic, to Professor Mesfin Woldemariam to review it and give me his blessings. The earliest world maps date back to the 9th century BC in ancient Babylon. The Ancient Calculator - Eratosthenes of Cyrene (ancient Greek/Roman city on Med Sea coast of Libya today) created the study of geography at the Library of Alexandria What did Eratosthenes (using math & geometry & astronomy) contribute to geography & science? A noted polymath, Eratosthenes also made notable contributions to the field of mathematics, including the invention of an algorithm used to identify prime numbers. Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. And i also hop that you enjoy this blog post because you get here both father of Geography as well as fathers in different branches of Geography. Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US. Father of Indian Geography – James Rennell So, i hope that your confusion regarding the father of Geography is clear now. He was born in 276 BC. Economic geography studies economic activity and how it relates to geographical position. He believed it was a fixed globe whose changes only took place on the surface. Among his other many accomplishments were the creation of the first map of the world and the invention of an algorithm known as the sieve of Eratosthenes, which is used to identify prime numbers. As we now know, this was a critical error on Columbus' part. Al-Idrisi was a 12th-century Arabic geographer, who was best known for one of the most accurate geographical maps of the ancient world. He is widely respected as one of the founders of modern geography. The star catalog in the Almagest was based on a similar catalog by an earlier astronomer, Hipparchus. The catalog was made up of 48-star constellations that were visible to the pre-modern astronomer. The book was among the first to outline the study of geography in history. The geographer is believed to have been born in 100 AD in Egypt. The accuracy of the “Geographica” book was unchallenged for hundreds of years and was widely reproduced in the Byzantine Empire. Admirers of the Greek thinker called him Pentathlos, after the Greek athletes known for their prowess in a number of different events. Al-Idrisi was among the founders of geography, with one of the earliest accurate maps being attributed to him. John Francon Williams (1854–1911) - author of The Geography of the Oceans . Eratosthenes is considered the Father of Geography. The father of physical geography is widely considered to be Alexander von Humboldt (1769 - 1859). The geographer was born in 1100 AD in Ceuta, a town which was then under Almoravids, to a family that claimed to be direct descendants of Prophet Muhammad. His father was a physician and when he died his widow lacked any means of support for her family of five. Born in Cyrene, in what is now Libya, in 276 B.C., Eratosthenes grew up curious and went to Athens to learn more about the world around him. The geographer died in 1165 in his ancestral town of Ceuta at the age of 64 or 65 years. The term geography was first coined by Eratosthenese, a Greek scholar (276¬194 BC.). This was a major opportunity, and Eratosthenes was excited to accept the position. Hiccatius is often called Father of Geography. During the Middle Ages, most scholars accepted Eratosthenes' circumference, though Christopher Columbus used Posidonius' measurement to convince his supporters that he could quickly reach Asia by sailing west from Europe. Father of Geography? He worked as a chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria for his way of learning. Herodotus is called father of historical geography. Sir Halford Mackinder (1861–1947) – co-founder of the LSE , Geographical Association . 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