Introduction: Metolachlor is usually applied to crops before plants emerge from the soil, and is used to control certain broadleaf and annual grassy weeds in field corn, soybeans, peanuts, grain sorghum, potatoes, pod crops, cotton, safflower, stone fruits, nut trees, highway rights-of-way and woody ornamentals. Similar approaches have defined transcriptional mechanisms for the pesticide induction of other CYPs through their activity as ligands for relevant transcriptional activators. Since there were no differences in the levels of microbial activity, the authors hypothesized that ‘some grass types may be creating an environment that selects for microbes that are capable of pesticide degradation.’ Conversely, Lin et al. If metolachlor is used, increase rate at least 25% to account for its lower weed control activity. Herbicide trapping by predominantly smooth bromegrass/Kentucky bluegrass filter strips ranged from 11% to 100% for atrazine, 16% to 100% for metolachlor, and 8% to 100% for cyanazine for six runoff events during a 2-year period, the variability due to the saturation level of the soil (Arora et al., 1996). Although the lifetime Health Advisory Level (HAL) for metolachlor is 100 ppb, levels exceeding this were found in three wells located in Wisconsin, New York, and Montana (EPA, 1995a). It is not always apparent what formulation is used or if a product has a safener. Atrazine (2), desethylatrazine (5), bentazone (2), terbuthylazine (2), desethylterbuthylazine (2) and oxhadiazon (3) occurred few times (in brackets) at concentration higher than 0.1 µg L–1. Biofilm either absorb toxic chemicals or degrade them into intermediate products. It is effective at application rates around 35% lower than original metolachlor. We used Poisson regression to evaluate relations between two metrics of metolachlor use (lifetime days, intensity‐weighted lifetime days) and cancer incidence. In a small study that enrolled five agricultural worker homes and five nonagricultural worker homes, Bradman reported greater frequency of detection and higher concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos in agricultural worker homes. Click here to enquire about this product These associations suggest that these pesticides and herbicides may contribute to a reduction in semen quality for men in the mid-Missouri region (Swan, 2003). The commonly used herbicides are alachlor, acetochlor, butachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor. It should be emphasized that the binding coefficients for adsorption on Mt of the cations octadecyl trimethylammonium (ODTMA), HDTMA (Mishael et al., 2002a), butyl trimethylammonium (BTMA) (Polubesova et al., 1997), or PTMA (El-Nahhal et al., 2000) are about three orders of magnitude above that of Na+, whereas the binding coefficients of the monovalent dyes are even several orders of magnitude larger (Margulies et al., 1988a; Nir et al., 1994; Rytwo et al., 1995). Figure 3.1. Organoclays were designed to mainly promote the adsorption of neutral and hydrophobic pesticides and slow their release. The CAS number is the substance numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service, a division of the American Chemical Society, to substances registered in the CAS registry database. They concluded that parameters affecting herbicide retention include width of vegetative filter strips, area ratio, species established, time after establishment of the vegetative filter strips, antecedent moisture content, nominal herbicide inflow concentration, and herbicide properties. Richard P. Pohanish, in Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals (Second Edition), 2015. Crops on which acetochlor is applied include cabbage, citrus, coffee, corn, cotton, green peas, maize, onion, soybeans, sugar beets, and vineyards. Casabar et al. products can be differentiated due to Metolachlor is one such herbicide that contains different isomers. The general framework for ranking the pesticide monitored is based on national uses, the list of priority chemicals, bans at EU level, reported contamination in previous monitorings and the EPA-California model which selects the pesticides to be monitored on the basis of water solubility (>3 mg L–1), soil adsorption coefficient (Koc < 1900 cm3 g–1), hydrolysis half-life (> 14 days), aerobic soil metabolism half-life (> 610 days) and anaerobic soil metabolism half-life (>9 days). Rothlein et al. Pesticide properties for Metolachlor, including approvals, environmental fate, eco-toxicity and human health issues Two types of hydraulic regimes were taken into account: turbulent with high variation vs. laminar with low variation. Figure 32.1. Now that there are a lot of generic versions out there it has become confusing. Alachlor is an herbicide from the chloroacetanilide family. Mineralization rates of ring-labeled atrazine in both rhizosphere and nonvegetated soils were quite high (> 47% of the initial 14C applied after 36 days) compared to literature values. It is an odorless, white solid. When the combined effect of these two factors was observed, more diversified communities were found in turbulent conditions, but this greater variability in periphytic biofilm did not enhance the tolerance of the community to pesticides. (2005) designed formulations of pendimethalin (PM), which is a dinitroaniline herbicide, highly hydrophobic and with a very low solubility in water, used for pre-emergence weed control. With 1 mg/L of herbicide applied in simulated runoff to smooth bromegrass filter strips, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor losses were reduced 83–85% with no sediment present, but only 53–58% with 10000 mg/L sediment (Misra, 1994). These studies reveal the effect of chronic contamination of biofilm in a small stream by pesticide diffusion. Not all metolachlor products registered for sale in Minnesota are being purchased. Today, its use has expanded. Atrazine and metolachlor concentrations in runoff were reduced 83–94% and 82–96%, respectively, with 4.3- and 8.5-m vegetative filter strips (Barone et al., 1998). Adsorption of metolachlor by berberine organoclays increased with the amount of berberine that has replaced the original exchangeable cation, exhibiting a C-type isotherm indicating a partition mechanism. (2010) reported that metribuzin significantly increased the protein percentage of maize grain. Biofilms were affected at lower concentrations of isoproturon, metribuzin, and hexazinone than concentrations noted for single-species growth tests. reported the presence of diazinon (geometric mean=21 ng g−1) and chlorpyrifos (geometric mean=49ng g−1); neither pesticide was registered for home use at the time of collection. Gupta, in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, 2011. This class of herbicides is slightly hazardous, except butachlor, which is not likely to pose any hazard. showed higher frequency of detection of one or more of six agricultural herbicides in homes where the respondent was currently employed in agriculture (85%), compared to homes of past farmers (37%), and homes of respondents who had never farmed (16%). Propachlor produces skin sensitization in guinea pigs. Some contain both isomers, others contain only the s-isomer and are usually designated as s-metolachlor. These data are presented in Table 1. Contamination of groundwater and surface water has become a problem due to metolachlor’s mobility and persistence in soil (CDPR, 2003), and because significant amounts of the herbicide present for several months after application can run off in surface water (EPA, 1995a). Out of the 188 compounds analyzed, 34 are detected in ground water with a median of 1.7 molecule per sample. It is stable to ~ 300 °C; Vapor pressure = 1.5 × 105 mmHg @ 20 °C. The common name metolachlor is in general use. Lu et al. Atrazine, ); neither pesticide was registered for home use at the time of collection. Use Profile Metolachlor is a broad spectrum herbicide used for general weed control in many agricultural food and feed crops (primarily corn, soybeans and sorghum), and on lawns and turf, ornamental plants, trees, shrubs and vines, rights of way, fencerows and hedgerows, and in forestry. Washing did not cause desorption of the above organic cations and the effect of the ionic strength was minimal. There is clearly more targeted mechanistic work that needs to be conducted in this area before any sound conclusions can be drawn. The exposure level for GW indicates that 7.4% of the samples exceed the threshold value of either 0.1 µg L–1 per substance or 0.5 µg L–1 for the sum of all substances detected. A study published in Environmental Health Perspectives hypothesized that pesticides used in the Midwest for agricultural purposes resulted in semen quality differences in men. The hydrophobicity of the organoclay was shown when the amounts of berberine added were 75% or higher, as confirmed by particle charge detector measurements, mixed immiscible phases experiments, and FTIR measurements. This effect has not been observed in human beings involved in manufacture of alachlor. Data from house dust showed that compared to referent family homes, agricultural family homes had median concentrations that were 3.9 times higher for azinphos-methyl (1100 ng g−1 vs. 283 ng g−1), 2.8 times higher for phosmet (519 ng g−1 vs. 185 ng g−1), 5.0 times higher for chlorpyrifos (267 ng g−1 vs. 53 ng g−1), and more than 14 times higher for ethyl parathion (154 ng g−1 vs. <11 ng g−1). Approximately 75% of the field corn acreage grown in the United States is treated with atrazine. Coronado et al. Dual Magnum vs Dual II Magnum. An Agricultural Health Study conducted from 1993 to 2001 in Iowa and North Carolina observed 57,311 pesticide applicators and 32,347 spouses. Control of the overall quality of the water resources in Italy is carried out by government institutions dealing with the environmental and human health. Effect of acetochlor formulations applied in field study on green foxtail growth as determined 2–6 weeks after application. Acetochlor ranked fourth of the most used agricultural herbicide active ingredients per year at 16,000 metric tons (35 million lbs) during 2002 (Gianessi and Reigner, 2006). Its top agricultural use areas, in terms of use per acre, include the Midwestern United States, particularly Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Nebraska, and also Delaware. Although detailed metabolism has not been studied on many herbicides in this class, Coleman et al. reported the presence of herbicide residues (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)) in the homes of agricultural worker families participating in the Ontario Farm Family Health Study. A high percentage of surface water samples from numerous locations for several months post-application contain metolachlor. The solubility of metolachlor in water is 530 ppm at 20°C. The technical material causes minimal irritation in the Draize test. Abnormal diatom frustules observed in the contaminated experimental units for the species Surirella angusta (A–E), Fragilaria capucina (F–H), and Nitzschia sociabilis (I–K). Today, its use has expanded. However, Bonnet et al. Diazinon concentrations in agricultural homes were 0.36 ng g−1, compared with 0.14 ng g−1 in metropolitan area homes. There are no significant effects found on plant growth and yield and also the fruit quality of pineapple (cultivar Pérola) after the application of herbicides diuron; flazifop-p-butyl, and atrazine+S-metolachlor. Yield and fruit quality were evaluated by observing average weight (g) of fruits with and without crown, fruit lengths, and diameters, and pH and soluble solids determination of pulp (Maia et al., 2012). Annales de Limnologie – International Journal of Limnology (47), 239–249. They demonstrated the involvement of the human PXR and the human CAR in the inductive process. Isoxaflutole was first used in 1999 in the United States. (2005) reviewed studies investigating the effectiveness of vegetative filter strips on reducing herbicide runoff and methods of evaluating herbicide retention. Flash point = 110 °C(cc)[86]. Adsorption of PM on Mt and two organo-Mts was tested. Ward et al. Atrazine and diclofop methyl are absorbed and then degraded by periphytic biofilm acting as a sink (Lawrence et al., 2001; Margoum et al., 2007). Now that there are a lot of generic versions out there it has become confusing. A total of 13 studies assessed levels of pesticides in dust collected from homes, vehicles, and soil surrounding agricultural homes. (2008) tested possible platforms for organo-Mt–metolachlor formulations prepared in mixed water/hydrophobic solvent phases. detected the presence of OPs more frequently in house dust samples than in soil samples from outside the homes of six agricultural families and seven metropolitan area families. Similarly, Pornprom et al. Eyes : Wear safety goggles. (2004) concluded from two studies that switchgrass, tall fescue, and smooth bromegrass were the best grass candidates for atrazine and isoxaflutole trapping and metabolism in tree-shrub-grass riparian buffer systems. METOLACHLOR 960 EC is a group code K3 herbicide. In an animal study, adminstration of metolachlor led to decreased body weight gain and minor changes in the liver structure of rats (Extoxnet, 1993b). It is now registered for use on corn, cotton, peanuts, pod crops, potatoes, safflowers, soybeans, tree nuts, non-bearing citrus and grapes, cabbage, peppers, and in non-agricultural locations such as nurseries, hedgerows/fencerows, and landscape plantings (EPA, 1995a). In humans, the major urinary metabolites of alachlor, metolachlor and acetachlor have been identified as their mercapturates (Driskell et al., 1996; Driskell and Hill, 1997; Barr et al., 2007). The adsorption of organic cations on clay minerals modifies the nature of the clay mineral surface, transforming it from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. S. Nir, ... B. Rubin, in Developments in Clay Science, 2013. Metolachlor is used in corn, peanuts, and soybeans. Barbash, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), 2014. Impact of the herbicide metolachlor on river periphytic diatoms: experimental comparison of descriptors at different biological organization levels. These It was first registered in the United States in 1958. Ernest Hodgson, in Pesticide Biotransformation and Disposition, 2012. Metolachlor has been classified as a possible human carcinogen by the EPA. Some contain both isomers, others contain only the s-isomer and are usually designated as s-metolachlor. Concerns over health effects have resulted in some safety measures. China Herbicide Pesticide Metolachlor 335g/L + Terbutryn 165g/L Sc, Find details about China Weedicide, Metolachlor from Herbicide Pesticide Metolachlor 335g/L + Terbutryn 165g/L Sc - Sino Agro-Chemical Industry Ltd. Of the five studies that authors reviewed, which examined differences in concentrations of pesticides in house dust samples by occupational status, all reported higher levels in homes of agricultural workers than nonagricultural workers. Metolachlor is a herbicide that was registered in 1976 to control weeds growing in non-crop areas. S-metolachlor is a herbicide from the chloroacetanilide family and is the fifth most widely used herbicide in the United States at 11 metric tons (24 million lbs; Gianessi and Reigner, 2006). When isoproturon and S-metolachlor, two major herbicides used in French agriculture, were tested on periphytic biofilm at low (5 μg/L) and high (30 μg/L) concentrations with different recovery periods, complete decreases in chlorophyll a concentration and live cell density were observed. I prefer to use Me-Too-Lachlor because, it is cheaper and just as effective.”. (2010) reported that the total carbohydrate increased by preemergence application of metribuzin. Long-term exposure of acetochlor to rats has no adverse effects on reproductive performance in animals. In analysis of data from 143 homes and vehicles in eastern Washington State, Curl et al. Products containing metolachlor are sold under the tradenames Bicep, CGA-24705, Dual, Pennant, and Pimagram. The herbicide metolachlor has been widely used for over 20 years for selective weed control in more than 70 crops worldwide. (2011) investigated the effect of different hydraulic regimens on structure, diversity, and functioning of periphytic biofilms after exposure to a mixture of two pesticides: diuron and azoxystrobin. Total irrigation (including rain) was equivalent to 60, 70, 92, 142, and 146 mm after 2–6 weeks, respectively. Neither of these pesticides is registered for home use. is a selective herbicide used for control of broadleaf weeds and annual grasses in corn, established alfalfa, fruit, nuts, asparagus, ornamentals, and turf. However, in the rabbit study with butachlor, a slight increase in postimplantation loss and decreased fetal weights were observed at maternally toxic doses. 3.2). Chloroacetamide herbicides, such as metolachlor and acetochlor, are commonly used herbicides. Some may contain the safener and others do not. Physicochemical and environmental conditions of streams also affect the response of diatom communities to contaminants such as pesticides (Morin et al., 2009). Physiological characteristics of photoautotrophic communities (microalgae, cyanobacteria) make them more vulnerable to herbicides that mainly inhibit photosynthetic processes (Pesce et al., 2010b). Metolachlor is a herbicide that was registered in 1976 to control weeds growing in non-crop areas. The Ah receptor is known to be involved in the induction of Cyp isoforms in mice by MDP and related compounds (Cook and Hodgson, 1985, 1986) and may be assumed to be involved in any induction of Cyp1a1 or CYP1A1. It is non-genotoxic and there is no carcinogenic potential in animals. In dogs, there is poor diet palatability, which results in loss of weight and poor consumption of food. Pennant Magnum is a selective pre-emergent herbicide that controls weeds in nurseries, turf, and landscape plantings.Pennant Magnum controls yellow nutsedge, smooth and large crabgrass, and over 20 other ornamental and landscape weeds. The commonly used herbicides are alachlor, acetochlor, butachlor, John F Hebblethwaite, Carol N. Somody, in, Herbicide trapping by predominantly smooth bromegrass/Kentucky bluegrass filter strips ranged from 11% to 100% for atrazine, 16% to 100% for, Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Organic Pollutants, Anderson and co-workers have conducted studies utilizing soils and plants from pesticide-contaminated sites. The pre-adsorbed organo cations caused a dehydration of the interlayer space, leading to hydrophobicity of the organoclay mineral. Leaching of cationic pesticides is rarely a problem, since they have a strong tendency for adsorption on clay minerals and colloidal soil particles (Rytwo et al., 1996a,b; Undabeytia et al., 1999; Polubesova et al., 2001). Get a month of TabletWise Pro for free! Metolachlor is one of the widely used herbicides on corn in Minnesota, and is also labeled for use on soybeans, potatoes, sugar beets, sunflowers, and tomatoes. Metolachlor was registered with the EPA in 1976. The resistant individuals can eventually dominate the weed population if these herbicides are used repeatedly. The authors estimated a 40% increase in levels for each additional household resident. FTIR measurements showed that the interactions of PM with Mt on which difenzoquat (DZ) or mepiquat (MQ) were previously adsorbed are via the nitro and methyl groups of the herbicide. Limiting the availability of phosphorous increased the tolerance of biofilm to Cu toxicity (Guasch et al., 2004) but had no effect on community tolerance to atrazine (Guasch et al., 2007) or diuron (Pesce et al., 2010c). The frequency of abnormal forms has already been used as an indicator for heavy metal contamination (Cattaneo et al., 2004), but the use of deformed forms for monitoring contamination is difficult due to the small percentage of deformities (Morin et al., 2009) and greater effort. The Italian national agency for the environmental protection (APAT) coordinates the overall monitoring plans (technical protocols, data processing, statistical assessment and yearly report), while each region (through its environmental agency) applies the monitoring plan that lasts 3 years. Metolachlor, a widely used herbicide, is classified as a Group C carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency based on increased liver neoplasms in female rats. S-metolachlor is a mixture of the S- and R-formats in an approximate ratio 88:12 . Sensitizer-produced oxidants include hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl, peroxy, and nitrate radicals, and photoexcited triplet diradicals (Cooper and Zika, 1983; Mackay et al., 1997; Mill and Mabey, 1985). The organoclay-based formulation contained 7.5% acetochlor. Plant experiments using the organoclay herbicide formulation with a higher amount of a.i. DUAL GOLD Environmental Information Sheet (136.92 KB) DUAL GOLD Label (156.42 KB) Under field conditions, isoproturon treated wheat grain yield reduced by 65% compared to the untreated plant (Chhokar and Malik, 2002). P.K. Loss of metolachlor by photodegradation is considered to be insignificant (LeBaron et al. Subsequent experiments indicated that mineralization of 14C-atrazine in soil treated with a mixture of atrazine and metolachlor at concentrations typical of point-source contamination (50 × g/g each) was significantly greater in rhizosphere soil from Kochia scoparia than in nonvegetated and control soils (Perkovich et al., 1995). Its favourable soil behaviour and low risk for developing weed resistance means that metolachlor integrates well into sustainable weed-management practices, such as conservation tillage. Application Refer to the product′s Certificate of Analysis for more information on a suitable instrument technique. It has been registered for use in the United States since 1974 (Cox, 2004). Chaudhary et al. Scott D. Cunningham, ... F.C. Active Ingredient: Metolachlor. Several soil samples exhibited the ability to mineralize high concentrations of 14C-atrazine. Growers sometimes asked what is the meaning of 'II' in Dual II Magnum and Bicep II Magnum. 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